A database is a means of collecting and organizing information. Databases are actively used for dynamic sites with large amounts of data — often, these are online stores, portals, and corporate sites (e.g. PHP) or CMS-based (e.g. WordPress) and do not have ready-made pages with data by analogy with HTML sites.
Such sites are usually developed using a server-side programming language. Most databases start either in a spreadsheet or as a list in a word processor. The larger the data list, the more conflicting values and inconsistencies there may be. In list form, the data will be difficult to parse, and there are limited ways to search or extract a subset of the data for inspection.
Data Management Systems
It was necessary to develop special management mechanisms for sharing resources, which later became known as databases. Research related to the creation and operation of databases and the software necessary for their operation has led to the emergence of a separate class of informatics of the data management system. Such systems perform operations of varying complexity related to data management in a shared database with an interface and a varying number of its users.
It turns out that, by its very nature, a database management system (DBMS) is an intermediary between the database and its users.
In the context of databases, it is worth considering the concept of a database management system. DBMS is a complex software tool necessary for creating the structure of a new database, filling it, editing content, and displaying information.
To date, approximately twenty DBMSs have been developed and are successfully operated on PCs – they, in addition to their main functions, offer clients interactive tools for convenient interaction with the database and are written in “smart” programming languages.
Among all functions of database management systems, several main ones can be distinguished.
So, DBMS is responsible for:
- searching for the necessary data
- physical placement of the actual data and their descriptions
- restoring and updating databases in accordance with changes in the real world (up-to-date maintenance)
- data protection against hacking, incorrect changes, and prohibited access
- regulation of simultaneous requests to the database from several users (this function is performed with the help of special application programs).
In turn, for the convenience of working with DBMS, special web applications are used, which allow using a graphical interface to perform database server administration, run special commands, as well as work with the content of tables and databases – actions that, in the absence of a web application, are performed using the console.
Such DBMSs are most often found in the context of the concept of hosting. Their features:
- DBMS location on the database server;
- direct access to the database;
- centralized processing of client requests for data processing;
- high level of reliability, availability, and security;
- increased load on the server.
A necessary condition for the successful functioning of databases is a strong guarantee of their integrity. As already mentioned, DBMSs are responsible for protecting data from all kinds of surprises. Security is provided by data encryption using special application software, password protection, and control of database access levels.
The process of storing all information in the database is represented by a logical structure in the form of special models supported by database management systems.
These Models Include:
- hierarchical (data is presented in the form of a tree structure)
- network (presentation of data in the form of a free graph)
- relational (English Relation (relationship) – describes sets of generic concepts and features of data in the database)
- object-oriented (storing in the database not only data but also methods of their processing in the form of software code).
According to the nature of use, DBMS are divided into:
- personal (set of language and software tools needed to create and manage databases – VISUAL FOXPRO, ACCESS)
- general (use different operating systems and include a database server and a client part – ORACLE, INFORMIX).
Operators and compilers are used in DBMS to process user commands or program operators. With the help of compilers, you can get an autonomous exe – an application, that is, any program.
Therefore, databases are an important part of information systems designed for data storage and use. To manage the data in these databases and ensure access to them, algorithms were written for future data management systems – a software environment designed to create a common database, maintain its current state and ensure full or limited user access to it and its data.